Classification of Commonly Abused Drugs :
Opiates, Alcohol, Cannabis, Cocaine, Tobacco, Amphetamine
Opiates include Heroin, Smack, Dode, Bhuki, Opium, Codeine, Hydromorphone, Oxycodone, Oxymorphone, Hydrocodone , Fentanyl, Methadone, inj. Buprenorphin, Morphine Pentazocine, Pathedine, Cough Syrups, Capsules, Tablets etc.
They are commonly known as :
Smack, Brown Sugar, White Lady, "H", Hard Stuff, Shit, China White, Dolls, Dollies, M, Big H, Black Tar, Horse, Joy Powder, Mud.
Effects of Opiates :
General effects of opiates / narcotic analgesics include: sedation, slowed reflexes, raspy speech, sluggish movements, slowed breathing, cold skin, and possible vomiting. However, with continuous use the individual develops tolerance to the drug, therefore causing the effects to diminish and hence a gradual increase in the dose. Heroin is the strongest narcotic and it is known to completely destroy the users ability to reason. The synthetic forms of opiates are known as designer drugs, which are in fashion.
Overdose of narcotic analgesics leads to respiration depression, slow and shallow breathing, cold and clammy skin, convulsions, patient may go into delirium or coma and even death may take place.
Alcohol has become socially acceptable in the Indian society and it is the commonest intoxicant used by the rich, middle class and the poor. It is probably the cheapest source of addiction but damages almost every part of the human body. Teenagers and women consider it as quite normal drink and the culture of Pubs and discotheque has encouraged the use of alcohol. Dine and dance parties are becoming popular day by day. The average income of the youngsters and middle-aged people has increased leading to more indulgence in alcohol intake. Social drinking may be acceptable within limits but the problem starts when individual starts drinking every day and that also day and night. Majority of the mature people can control their intake of alcohol but there are some who get controlled by alcohol and hence become addicts leading to hardships in their job, finances, family life, social life and health. One of the pathological patterns of drinking is called binges in which the patient drinks continuously for a few days or weeks and then is absolutely off, again drinks for a few days and this cycle keeps repeating and there are unsuccessful attempts and false promises to leave alcohol.
Alcohol is consumed in the form of Scotch, Whisky, Beer, Vodka, Gin, Rum, Liquor Chocolates and Chocolate flavored alcoholic drinks, Cocktails etc.
Cannabis includes :
Bhang : dried leaves and flowers of cannabis plant. It is consumed either by crushing fresh leaves or by boiling it in milk or other liquids.
Marijuana : dried leaves and flowers are smoked in cigarettes.
Ganja : ganja is smoked.
Hashish/charas : Pure resin from flowering tops and leaves and a sticky brown cake is made which is usually smoked.
Liquid cannabis or hash oil.
Effects of Cannabis :
Cannabis causes dryness of mouth, increased hunger, redness of the eyes, and increase in heart rate. There is a feeling of relaxation and euphoria and is the main reason for repeated use. There is a general sense of well-being and happiness. Time seems to move slowly and other sensations are heightened. Emotional incontinence is one of the important features and the person over reacts to a particular situation Unwanted effects like impaired memory and concentration are common although they are reversible. Free-floating anxiety, suspiciousness, confusion, illusions, agitation and aggressive behavior are commonly seen.
Cocaine / Crack :
Cocaine is obtained from the leaves of Coco bush. Initially these leaves were chewed which had a stimulant effect and less feeling of tiredness and hunger. Medicinally it was used for relieving pain. At present it is one of the most abused drug in the American culture and the extract of the leaves of coco bush in the powder form is presently used for recreational purposes. It is commonly sniffed or snorted through the nostrils. It is also taken in the injection form and is also smoked. One of its cheap derivatives is called Crack, which is famous for its uncontrolled aggression.
Effects of Cocaine :
It is a powerful stimulant of the central nervous system and produces a feeling of well-being. It is famous for producing new sensations and immediate excitement. There is rise in the blood pressure and heart rate. Over dose can lead to abnormality in the heart rate, respiratory depression, convulsions and even death can take place. Long use leads to cocaine psychosis and a particular feeling of insects crawling under the skin. The incidence of suicide is very high in cocaine addicts.
The active ingredient in tobacco is nicotine. Tobacco is used in the form of chewing, sniffing or smoking. The nicotine released enters into the blood stream and reaches the brain which gives rise to a sudden kick leading to feeling of well being. As the level of nicotine in the blood falls the person has to again consume tobacco leading to addition. Cigarette is also considered as sign of so called male macho.
Effects of Tobacco/Cigarette :
Smoking affects almost all systems of the human body. Incidence of Cancer of the oral cavity, lungs, tongue, larynx is very high. Prolong smoking leads to TB, chronic bronchitis, asthma, blood pressure, heart attack, stroke, increased cataracts, retinal detachment, impotence, miscarriages, decreased immunity, wrinkle on the face and hair loss. There are about 3, -4000 hazardous chemicals, which are present in tobacco. The person who smokes is called active smoker and any other person sitting around him who inhales the poisonous smoke is called the passive smoker who also suffers from multiple diseases as a result of hazardous chemicals present in tobacco.
Amphetamine is a highly potent and highly addictive stimulant similar to cocaine in its effect on the body and mind. Amphetamine increases energy and decreases appetite. It is used, though very rarely, in a medical setting for treatment of some forms of depression, ADHD, and narcolepsy. Amphetamine is also used recreationally. Use and possession of amphetamine for recreational purposes is illegal in most countries.
Amphetamine/Ice Abuse :
Abuse of methamphetamine has exploded in recent years. Typically, amphetamine abuse starts as seemingly harmless use. Amphetamine users experience increased energy and confidence, and a feeling of euphoria. As abuse progresses into addiction, users begin to experience negative mental and psychological effects of amphetamine abuse. These include paranoia and hyper-sensitivity, senseless and repetitive behavior (often called “tweaking”), extremely impaired judgment, withdrawal from social life, and violence. Amphetamine abuse has profound physical effects, including disturbed heartbeat, changes in blood pressure, nausea, loss of teeth, dramatic and dangerous weight loss, various skin ailments, and increased risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases.
Miscellaneous Group :
This includes alprazolam, diazepam, nitrazepam, clonazepam, barbiturates, analgesics, petrol fumes, iodex on bread, boot polish, insecticides, burnt lizards, snake venom, thinner, eraser etc.
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